Human Studies



  • Plasma carotenoid concentrations before and after supplementation with astaxanthin in middle-aged and senior subjects.

    Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2011; 75(9):1856-8.

  • Erythrocytes carotenoids after astaxanthin supplementation in middle-aged and senior Japanese subjects.

    J Oleo Sci. 2011; 60(10):495-9.

  • Bioavailability of Astaxanthin in Haematococcus algal extract: the effects of timing of diet and smoking habits.

    Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2009 Sep; 73(9):1928-32.

  • Plasma appearance of unesterified Astaxanthin geometrical E/Z and optical R/S isomers in men given single doses of a mixture of optical 3 and 3'R/S isomers of astaxanthin fatty acyl diesters.

    Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2004 Oct; 139(1-3):99-110.

  • Oral bioavailability of the antioxidant astaxanthin in humans is enhanced by incorporation of lipid based formulations.

    Eur J Pharm Sci. 2003 Jul; 19(4):299-304.

  • Metabolism and CYP-inducer properties of Astaxanthin in man and primary human hepatocytes.

    Arch Toxicol. 2002 Jan; 75(11-12):665-75.



  • Combined conventional/antioxidant "Astaxanthin" treatment for male infertility: a double blind, randomized trial.

    Asian J Androl. 2005 Sep; 7(3):257-62.



  • Efficacy and safety of eight-week treatment with astaxanthin in individuals screened for oxidative stress burden.

    Anti-Aging Medicine. 2009; 6(4):15-21.



  • Protective effect of Haematococcus Astaxanthin on oxidative stress in healthy smokers

    J Med Food. 2011; 14(0):1-7.


Animal Studies In Vitro Studies



  • Pharmacokinetics and first-pass metabolism of astaxanthin in rats.

    Br J Nutr. 2011 Jan; 105(2):220-7.

  • Characterization of microalgal carotenoids by mass spectrometry and their bioavailability and antioxidant prpperties elucidated in rat model

      J Agric Food Chem. 2010; 58,8553-8559

  • A comparison of lycopene and Astaxanthin absorption from corn oil and olive oil emulsions.

      Lipids. 2000 Jul; 35(7):803-6.



  • Dietary astaxanthin inhibits colitis and colitis-associated colon carcinogenesis in mice via modulation of the inflammatory cytokines.

    Chem Biol Interact. 2011 Aug 15; 193(1):79-87.

  • Growth-inhibitory effects of the astaxanthin-rich alga Haematococcus pluvialis in human colon cancer cells.

    Cancer Lett. 2009 Sep 28; 283(1):108-17.



  • Safety assessment of astaxanthin-rich microalgae biomass: Acute and subchronic toxicity studies in rats.

    Food Chem Toxicol. 2008 Sep; 46(9):3030-6.


  • Tocotrienols: Constitutional effects in aging and disease

      J Nutr. 2005 Feb; 135(2):151-4.